Evolution of CORBA Framework: An Experience Study
Ruslan Shevchenko <Ruslan@Shevchenko.Kiev.UA>
Grad-Soft ltd, Kiev, Ukraine
Anatoliy Doroshenko <email@example.com>
Institute Of Software Systems
National Academy Of Science of Ukraine
pdf version of this document.
In this experience study some evolution of an IT Enterprise
distributed component framework based on CORBA architecture is presented.
Some methodological and pragmatical aspects of software maintaince and
evolution are discussed. Some additions to CORBA standards are
proposed along with roadmap of future development.
The task of building and maintance of integrated enterprise system is
quite different from traditional software development. The main pecularities
- Lifecycle issues
- We have different business processes which have
different lifecycle requirements to appropriate software systems. On one
hand there exist business processes which must be changed very quickly
reflecting dynamic management behavior and on the other one -- there are
also business processes that must be more detailed and more stable to
reflect long term production issues. So lifecycle of integrated software
system consists of number of shorter and longer lifecycles of application
and system software.
- Evolutionary changes: we must be able to adopt systems to
new technology or to new platform in extensive way as changing whole
system requires significant investments. So software components must
have isolated well-defined external interfaces and these interface
of software component must have longer
lifecycle than component itself. Therefore theyt must be standardized.
- Complexity issues: enterprise-wide systems are quite complex.
Existing modeling tools does not allow us to split this complexity
in reasonable way. Yet another problem is knowledge transfer inside
development team. Development in such systems requires domain specific
knowledge which usually does not exist in written form.
- Integration issues: we must have standard interfaces for common
infrastructure of enterprise software system such as relational
databases and intraweb.
In this paper we analise how this peculiarities can be handled in CORBA-based
framework and what adoption is required to standard development technique
and software engineering methods.
CORBA is a vendor-neutral standard for distributed object architecture,
supported by Object Management Group - consortium from over 700 companies.
CORBA gives us language independent object oriented framework for distributed
computing based on open standards .
The CORBA itself defines following major parts:
- ORB core -- framework which provides infrastructure for CORBA
Object model. Interfaces for different parts of distributed systems
must be described in CORBA IDL (interface definition language) and then
can be translated into implementation language stubs or loaded
to interface repository. Appropriate language entities (servants)
CORBA objects can be written on a programming language of choice.
- CORBA Services -- a set of interfaces which provide API to application
programmers for some 'horizontal' common functionality. Among them are
Naming Service, Event Service, Transaction Service and so on (about 15
- Vertical Domain Interfaces -- a set of services specific to some
vertical domains such as financial or airline scheduling.
Future development of standard is concentrated on building component framework
 and integration IDL with software modeling techniques.
The framework of CORBA presented above looks good in theory.
We implemented the first CORBA based system in 1997 and are maintaining and
extending it up to today. Along these years we realised that CORBA is a nice
framework for splitting system into distributed parts. But now the scope of
CORBA usage is limited to this functionality. Some lessons we learned in these
years are following:
- Lifecycle issues:
- IDL is ideal for specifying system interfaces.
But today we can not use automatically generated code for defining of
object isolation levels. The gap between CORBA objects and implementation
servants is too big in the latest standards. Call of local object requires
call of interceptors and determination of object in POA active object
map. Usage of collocation optimization like , which
was used in CORBA-2.0 ORB-s is limited in the latest standard. CORBA-2.4
have concept of local interfaces and valuetypes but process of building
and deploying of local interfaces is not formalized.
Recently adopted CORBA-2.5 specifications  will provide
creating local interfaces by application programmer.
- Components with different lifecycle issues can be managed
as separate processes. In most cases this is acceptable from pragmatic
point of view, but CORBA does not provide standard way for automatic
management of object implementations. Most ORB-s provide proprietary
API for this. CORBA Components Framework will provide deployment
- Semantics of versioning interfaces in CORBA is too weak
to be usable.
- Complexity issues: IDL allow greatly reduce complexity by splitting
system into loosely-coupled parts and separate interface from
implementation. Combining IDL with API documentation generator and UML
tool give us nice framework for documenting system design.
- Integration issues: we discovered that CORBA standard does
not provide interfaces to well-known elements of IT infrastructure
such as access to relational databases and well-known authentification
frameworks. Even worse, CORBA standards set define Query Service which
can be used for relation database access, but semantics of this service
too weak for direct usage. Most interesting that interfaces defined
in Query Service does not allow effective implementation. So we invested
a few months of work into useless standard, then did special research
for CORBA performance issues ,  and
implement own framework for database access 
which allows efficient queries evaluations.
- Software administration issues: CORBA has reached set of API for
process-level software management such as implementation repositories
 and trading service. From other side, library-level
management layer is totally absent in general framework.
Today's CORBA purpose is organization of interfaces between remote
parts. Extending its usage for modeling and logical interface definition
framework which can be used in real life large scale projects requires
- Support of fine-grained object model: IDL is near ideal
language for architectural description of system. But now in
practice, it can be used only for describing connection between
remote subparts because semantic of CORBA call require too much
overhead which can not be fully eliminated by collocation optimization
without breaking semantics of CORBA object model.
One of CORBA features of 'location transparency' -- local call is
not differ from remote call on object level model --
in real life can not be reached. Local and remote call have completely
different overhead and software engineers must to distinguish remote and local
objects during design process. More detailed, when we work with complex
distributed systems, we have four levels of granularity:
- the same host, the same process space and the same language.
We have no overhead
during call of local interface. This is semantics of CORBA local interface.
- the same host, the same process space but another language. We have some
marshalling overhead but not data transfer overhead. This semantics currently
can not be expressed in CORBA model, the nearest analog is OS COM interface.
- host is in the same LAN, another process space. Data transfer becomes
the biggest source of call overhead. This is semantics of traditional
- host is in WAN. In this case we have not only data transfer
overhead but also
various proxy and firewall issues. This granularity is usually behind
the scope of CORBA model.
Integration of components of granularity level 1 or 3 can be done
using CORBA IDL for interface definitions. For granularity level 4 we
have WSDL mapping.
We have no way to express granularity level 2 in CORBA model.
On other hand, components of such granularity are often used in any
big system for
data access components integration and embedding of script languages.
Todays way is to use some low level tools such as SWIG  which
breaks unified object model, or
emulates granularity level 2 by granularity level 3 components which add
process boundaries overhead for each inter-subsystem call.
So some explicit notation for showing granularity level 2 components
(we can name it as 'local foreign'
can be useful.
Note that for making it possible we do not need in a inter-language
binary interface standard as usually pointed.
Now almost all interpreted language are supplied with:
- shared library which contains language interpreter;
- some API for interaction with C lanfuage such as Java JNDI or TCL
forign language interface.
- some access to dlopen() (or LoadDLL) functionality in system
Compiled languages typically have some tools for linking with C
So, almost for each language we have C binding and representation
of language entities as C data types. They are different in each
languages but can be unified by providing inter-language stubs.
There exist such tools as Swig  which automatically generates
such integration stubs for interconnections between 9 the most popular
Therefore, we do not need a standard for binary compability of components,
we need binary compability for C stubs which already exists.
- Support of fine-grained packaging: we must be able to use CORBA
local binary modules.
This means, that:
- application programmer can write implementation language file
which will be compiled as separated entry of compilation;
- there is a way to show ORB map of entry points and appropriative
object or bytecode files;
- ORB must be able to dynamically load appropriative object or
bytecode file by providing some portable API.
Currently standard technique for implementing deployment containers
exists only for Java language. OMG raise RFP for this issue, C++ API
prototype implementation is build by GradSoft .
- Support of relation database access: specifications of CORBA
Query service is too weak to be usable. But it is not mean, that
access to relation database is not needed. Persistent State
Service does not cover all functionality of Query Service: it is
intending only for object storage. As a result, each database vendor
usually provide own implementation of some form of Query Service
We build implementation of 'better' Query Service in
which can be extended for full replacement of original Query Service,
but with well-defined semantics and interfaces designed to allow
high-performance implementation , .
- Support of web access: web access now is standard element of
enterprise infrastructure. So there must exist a standard way for CORBA/Web
interconnection. Note, that this must be not limited to IDL/WSDL mapping,
but include more general issues, such as building presentation layer
Today two main directions of CORBA/Web integration are known, one is based
on dynamic scripting  and another provides static API
. We believe that both approaches are suitable
in different situations and must be standardized.
- Support of reflection and dynamic scripting: using a scripting language
as a 'glue'
between components in combination with reflective interface descriptions
usially reduce project time and cost. But during
applying this approach in CORBA environment we discovered, that exists
technical limitations caused (again) by granularity of CORBA object
model. Using refection in CORBA means using of remote object
'Interface Repository' (for local interfaces also). So, any using
of refective techniques become ineffective. This problem is partially
addressed in CORBA CCM specifications .
- Quality of specifications: obsolete specifications must be removed
from standard set. Software engineers must sure that technology
standards can be applied to real-life tasks. Also applying of formal
methods to specification , 
can be used for verification purpose.
- Versioning: built-in support of versioning of IDL specifications can not
be used. Note that correct semantics definition of versioning on interface
level is very difficult task itself. We need correct mechanism for
fusion between versioning semantic and possible interface inheritance in
So we can recommend pragmatical approach: does not use build-in CORBA
versioning, instead include version information to names of modules or
Following is a comparison of most popular technologies in context of future
requirements for developments of enterprise-wide systems:
So as we seen none of existing OO frameworks provide full
set of features necessary for large-scale projects.
architecture of enterprise software development are: EJB-based for
long-lifecycle projects, COM-based for projects with short lifecycle.
Ironically, there are no standard-based technologies for automation
connection of EJB and COM.
CORBA in its todays state can not be used as general concept framework,
but from other side it is most suitable to be extended to full-featured
CORBA can be transformed from framework for description of distribution
architecture into general object-oriented environment which would be
suitable for modeling and developing of large-scale software complexes.
In this paper the necessary extensions to object model are described.
They can be
implemented as extensions of IDL and CORBA Component Model.
Some of the necessary prototype extensions to
set are build by Grad-Soft  team and proved to be applicable
projects. Some software is available from Grad-Soft web page,
http://www.gradsoft.kiev.ua, free for non-commercial usage.
I want to thanks Michi Henning - Chief Scientist of IONA Technologies,
for review early version of this paper and discussion. This work was impossible
without effort of Grad-Soft software engineers:
Alexandr Yanovec, Vladimir Joss, Sergey Krisanov and others.
Swig: Simplicified Wrapper Interface Generator, 1996-2001.
Ruslan Shevchenko. Anatoliy Doroshenko.
A method of mediators for building web interfaces of corba
distributed enterprose applications.
Lecture Notes in Informatics V. 4 - Proceeding of Information
Systems Technology and its Applications 2001, 2001.
Ruslan Shevchenko; Anatoliy Doroshenko.
Tecniques for increasing performance of corba based distributed
Parallel Computer Technologies proc. 6-th int, conf. PACT2001
LNCS vol 2127 pp 319-328, 2001.
Object Management Group, editor.
The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture & Specification
Object Management Group, editor.
Object Management Group, editor.
The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture & Specification
Remi Bastide; Philippe Palanque; Ousmane Sy; David Havarre.
Formal specifications of corba sevices: Experience and lessons
ACM SIGPLAN Notices Vol. 35 Num. 10, 2000.
Binding, migration and scalabilty in corba.
Oracle8i Enterprose JavaBeans and CORBA developers guide.,
Sybase and CORBA Whiteparer, 1998.
GradSoft Home Page, 1999-2001.
Phillip Merle and Others.
CORBAWeb home page, 1996-2000.
Matteo Pradella; Matteo Rossi et al.
A formal approach for designing corba based applications.
Processing of the 2000 International Conference on Software
Engeneering June 4-11 Limerik Ireland, 2000.
Sergey Krisanov Ruslan Shevchenko.
mod_cbroker: Programming Guide, 2000-2001.
UAKGQuery: Programming Guide, 1999-2001.
Analysis of efficiency enhancing methods of corba based distributed
Proc. 2-nd Int. Conf. on Programming, May 23-26, 2000, Kiev,
pp 226-240 (in Russian).
Collocation optimizations for corba.
C++ Report, 1999.
Vol. 11 No 9.